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25 YEARS OF LEADERSHIP IN POWER METROLOGY

Electronic Components

Inductors, Capacitors and Resistors have nominal values that may require verification at a defined nominal frequency or range of frequencies. However, components are of course not ideal, with parasitic influences that have a varying effect on the impedance of electronic devices over an operating frequency range. The ability of an N4L Impedance analyzer to make measurements over a swept frequency range allows engineers to quantify and conveniently present these effects on individual components or more complex passive circuits.

LCR Impedance over frequency

While a perfect resistor would have a constant impedance at any frequency, a real resistor will exhibit a change in impedance as the frequency changes.


Reactance’s exhibit more pronounced change of impedance at different frequencies, with capacitors moving from high to low impedance as frequency increases while inductors will move from low to high with the same frequency change.

In an electronic circuit, the interaction of frequency dependant components plus parasitic impedances associated with the circuit hardware and its geometry, is most effectively understood with frequency response or impedance analysis across the frequency range at which the circuit will operate.

When the operating condition of a device is primarily DC, analysis of AC impedance may seem unnecessary but in many DC applications, for example the growing EV battery industry, AC impedance is a critical measurement, since this directly influences losses associated with the frequency components of a fast-changing DC level.

bode impedance plot

Filter Design

Piezoelectric devices

While Piezo devices are commonly associated with mundane applications like a flame ignitor, the characteristics of piezo crystals are utilised in an ever-increasing range of applications. From ABS systems in the automotive industry to ultrasonic sensors in medical equipment relying on resonant characteristics, piezo devises and equipment using them increasingly rely on frequency response analyzers for design and test.

LVDT and RVTD positional sensors

Linear Variable Transformer schematic

See Avionics