Electromagnetic Compatibility – IEC6100033:2013 A Technical Guide to Flicker Measurement
This technical article will discuss the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) IEC6100033:2013 testing standard, including relevant extracts from IEC61000415(instrumentation oriented standard) and explanations relating to analysis of voltage fluctuations and flicker on public low voltage supply systems. We will also describe how N4L ensure full compliance to the standard, including our Harmonics and Flicker Analyzer (PPA5511/PPA5531), AC Power Source and Impedance Network (Z_{ref})
What is Flicker?
The formal definition of flicker is the “impression of unsteadiness of visual sensation induced by a light stimulus whose luminance or spectral distribution fluctuates with time” (IEC 60050161,1990)
Flicker can be considered as a symptom, resulting from the modulation of a load and its effect on its own terminal voltage. Whilst connected to a voltage source with finite impedance, any load modulation will cause voltage fluctuations on the supply line.
IEC6100033:2013 is primarily concerned with the limitation of such fluctuations and subsequent flicker upon public lowvoltage systems. IEC6100033:2013 specifies the limits of voltage changes produced by electrical and electronic equipment when tested under these specified conditions.
IEC6100033:2013
IEC6100032:2013 is applicable to electrical and electronic equipment with an input current rating equal to or less than 16A per phase. Should a device fail the limits specified in IEC6100033:2013 tested with the specified source impedance specified in section 6.4 (Z_{ref}), it may be retested to show conformity with IEC61000311 (discussed in a separate article). Part 311 is applicable to all equipment with rated input ≤75A per phase and is subject to conditional connections.
What is Z_{ref}?
Z_{ref} is the internationally agreed reference source impedance for lowvoltage supply networks, as illustrated in the diagram below.
Key: G – Voltage Source EUT – Equipment Under Test M – Measuring Equipment S – Supply Source including reference impedance and voltage generator output impedance R_{A} = 0.24Ω jX_{A} = 0.15Ω @ 50Hz R_{N} = 0.16Ω jX_{N} = 0.10Ω @ 50Hz Note: The reference impedance within the source (S) block includes both the output impedance of the AC Source (G) and the reference impedance network (R_{A,} jX_{A}, R_{N,} jX_{N})  
Figure 1. (IEC6100033:2013,2013) 
Test Equipment Requirements
In real world compliant flicker testing, Z_{ref} is a physical impedance network consisting of a resistive element and an inductive element that is placed in between the AC Power Source and the equipment under test. N4L can provide the entire test system including Programmable AC Power source, Impedance Network and Flicker (+Harmonics +Power) Analyzer. We will discuss the different elements of the test system below;
1. Programmable AC Power Source – Section 6.3 of IEC6100033:2013 describes the requirements for the AC Power Source for compliant Flicker Testing, this can be summarized in the table below.
IEC6100033:2013 Test Supply Voltage (AC Power Source) Requirements  
Requirement  N4L N4Axx Programmable AC Power Source Performance 
Open Circuit Voltage shall be the rated voltage of the equipment  0300Vrms Single Phase, 520Vrms Three Phase 
Test Voltage Maintained within ±2% of the nominal value  ±0.1% 
Frequency Stability ±0.25Hz  ±0.01Hz 
THD < 3%  Better than 0.3% 
Table 1.
2. Z_{ref} – Reference Source Impedance – Section 6.4 of IEC6100033:2013 describes the requirements for Z_{ref}
IEC6100033:2013 refers to IEC/TR 60725 which specifies the inphase and quadrature component of the reference impedance Zref. It is important to note that Z_{ref} includes the impedance of the reference network and the output impedance of the AC source, the output impedance of the N4A series AC Power Sources is very low and can be considered negligible for this application.
3. Flicker Analyzer – Section 4.2.2 of IEC6100033:2013 refers the reader to IEC61000415:2010 which lays out the specification and signal processing requirements for compliant flicker measurements. All N4L PPA5511 and N4L PPA5531 Harmonics and Flicker Analyzers offer full compliance to IEC61000415. Furthermore, N4L are able to offer IEC61000 Harmonics and Flicker calibration to ISO17025 from our in house UKAS Laboratory.
Voltage Change Characteristics
Commonly known as “d” values, voltage change characteristics constitute three separate parameters – d_{(t)}, d_{c}, d_{max} and T_{max}.
 d_{(t)} – Time function of the relative rms half period voltage change for each half period between zerocrossings of the voltage source, expected during steady state voltage conditions.
 d_{c} – Maximum steady state voltage change during an observation period
 d_{max} – Maximum absolute voltage change during observation period
 T_{max} – Maximum time that the half period rms voltage exceeds the limit for dc. During a voltage change event the T_{max} value is accumulated until a new steady state condition is established.
P_{st}
P_{st}, or “short term flicker severity” is the calculated short term flicker as per IEC61000415, unless otherwise specified the P_{st} evaluation period is 10 minutes.
P_{lt}
Long term flicker sensitivity (perceptibility long term) is calculated as follows;
Where P_{st}, i (i = 1,2,3, …) are consecutive readings of short term flicker severity P_{st.}
Conditional Connection
Should the device under test fail the limits specified in IEC6100033 when tested with Z_{ref}, it is permitted for a manufacturer to specify that the equipment must be connected to a supply interface point which exhibits an impedance lower than that of Z_{ref } (the terminal/socket at which the device will be connected to the mains supply). This does make sense as basic electronic theory teaches us that voltage drop across any impedance (whether it is real or complex) is proportional to that impedance. If the source impedance at the connection point of the supply is lower (for the same load modulation) you will experience lower voltage fluctuations at the connection point, thus lower flicker readings.
Assessment of Flicker
Assessment of relative Voltage change:
The basis of flicker measurement centers around the voltage change characteristics when measured at the terminals of the equipment under test. N4L use the “Flickermeter” method for assessment of P_{st}. Other methods exist and are specified in section 4.2.1 of IEC6100033, these methods are however accompanied by caveats such as that the nominal voltage (U_{(t)}) must be known to use the simulation method.
It can be considered as the difference between the line and neutral U_{hp} values, remembering that U_{hp} is the half period RMS value between consecutive zero crossings.
If:
U_{hp}(t1) is the half period Vrms at time = t1
U_{hp}(t2) is the half period Vrms at time = t2
Then:
ΔU_{hp}(t) = U_{hp}(t1) – U_{hp}(t2)
This voltage change at the equipment under test’s terminals (or the difference between U_{hp}(t1) and U_{hp}(t2)), is a result of a change in voltage drop across the complex reference impedance (Z_{ref}) caused by a chang in the complex fundamental current IEC6100033 describes the complex current as;
ΔI_{p} = Active current change
ΔI_{q} = Reactive current change
If the equipment under test exhibits an inductive load to the generating equipment, for single phase and symmetrical three phase equipment the voltage change can be approximated to;
ΔU_{hp} =  ΔI_{p}R + ΔI_{q}X 
Where ΔI_{p} and ΔI_{q} are the in phase and quadrature parts of the current change respectively. R and X are the inphase and quadrature elements of the complex impedance.
Relative Voltage Change
Relative voltage change is given by the following formula;
d = ΔU_{hp}/U_{n}
As we have already stated, d_{max} is the maximum absolute voltage change, therefore the d_{max,i} evaluation ends as soon as a new steady state voltage condition is established. Alternatively the evaluation of d_{max,i} will end when the measurement period finishes.
Positive d_{max,i} is recorded when the maximum voltage change is a result of a reduction in voltage since the previous d_{end,i}
Negative d_{max,i} is recorded when the maximum voltage change is a result of an increase in voltage d_{end,i}
Using the P_{st} = 1 Curve
The P_{st }= 1 curve is a well known concept, it is however rarely understood. The graph below (taken from IEC6100033:2013) illustrates the overall concept, we must remember that if the performance of the equipment under tests lies under the P_{st} = 1 curve then the disturbance to the supply network is deemed to be acceptable in the short term (we will distinguish between short term and long term later in this article).
Figure 2. (IEC 6100033:2013,2013) 
If we analyze various working points on the P_{st} = 1 curve it is possible to determine the relative voltage change (d value) and the number of voltage changes per minute at that perturbation level.
Example:
For a 230V system a relative voltage change of 1% resulting in a Pst of 1 would require 25 voltage changes per minute. Figure 3 below is annotated at the 1% voltage change point and we can follow the graph across to the intersecting value on the yaxis at approximately 25 voltage changes per minute.
Figure 3. (IEC 6100033:2013,2013) 
We can state that for a voltage change of 1% at a frequency of 25 changes per minute, we would achieve a P_{st} equal to 1.
If we cross refer to table D1, found in Annex D of IEC6100033 we discover that the findings above correlate to the test protocol table.

Table 2. (IEC 6100033:2013,2013) 
Assessment of P_{lt} (Long term flicker)
Long term flicker P_{lt} shall be calculated with a value of N = 12 (see formula below)
The standard states that it is only necessary to assess P_{lt} for devices that are to be operated for longer than 30 minutes at a time.
Limits
The limits specified in IEC6100033:2013 are applicable to voltage fluctuations and flicker measured at the supply terminals of the device under test. This is an important point, as any current carrying component with measurable impedance, there will be a voltage drop across it. A current carrying cable connecting the AC Source to the equipment under test is no different and if the Flickermeter is placed at the output terminals it is important to remember that the overall impedance of the test circuit will include the interconnecting cabling. N4L have characterized this additional impedance and supply known value interconnecting cables with our IEC61000 test systems and compensated Z_{ref} networks accordingly.
Voltage Fluctuation and Flicker Limits  
Parameter  Limit 
P_{st}  Less than or equal to 1.0 
P_{lt}  Less than or equal to 0.65 
T_{max}  Accumulated time of d(t) with a deviation exceeding 3.3% during a single voltage change at the equipment under test terminals must not exceed 500ms 
d_{c}  The maximum relative steady state voltage change must not exceed 3.3% 
d_{max}  Maximum relative voltage change (between two half periods) shall not exceed: 4% without additional conditions 6% for equipment that is; – switched manually – switched automatically more than twice a day and is also fitted with a delayed restart not less than a few tens of seconds. Alternatively a manual restart after a power supply interruption. 7% for equipment that is; – attended whilst in use – switched on automatically or intended to be switched on automatically no more than twice per day. Must also be fitted with a delayed restart of not less than a few tens of seconds (or manual restart) after a power supply interruption. 
P_{st }and P_{lt} limits need not be applied to voltage changes caused by manual switching.
Nor do the limits need to be applied to voltage changes associated with emergency switching or emergency conditions, this is sensible as such occurrences will be very rare.
Test Conditions
For voltage changes caused by manual switching, equipment is deemed to comply without further testing providing the maximum input current (including inrush current) evaluated over each 10ms window between zero crossings does not exceed 20A. Further to this, the supply current after inrush must be within 1.5A. If the maximum relative voltage change d_{(max)} caused by manual switching is determined via measurement methods (such as the N4L PPA5511 and PPA5531) shall be measured as per the “Inrush Test Caused by Manual Switching” section below. The test procedure described is detailed in Annex B of IEC6100033:2013.
Measurement Uncertainty
IEC6100033:2013 describes various uncertainty requirements ranging from the flickermeter(PPA5511/PPA5531) to the impedance network(IMP161,IMP163,IMP323,IMP753).
The accuracy requirements are detailed in section 6.2 of IEC6100033 and are tabulated below for your reference;
Flickermeter Accuracy Requirements  
Parameter  Limit  N4L PPA55x1 Performance 
Current  ±(1% + 10mA)  0.01% Reading + 0.038% Range 
Total Measurement Uncertainty, including tolerance of Impedance Network and Impedance of AC Power Source  ±8%  <1% 
Reference Impedance
The reference impedance is a conventional impedance and consists of a resistance and inductance in each phase. The values specified in IEC6100033, an example of our reference impedance is shown below;
Figure 4. 
Reference Impedance 50Hz (60Hz)  
Parameter  Value 
R_{a}  240mΩ 
X_{a}  150mΩ (180mΩ) 
R_{n}  160mΩ 
X_{n}  100mΩ (120mΩ) 
Observation Period
The observation period is indicated in section 6.5 of IEC6100033, the recommended period T_{p} for measurement of flicker is shown in the table below;
Observation Period  
Parameter  Time 
P_{s}t  10 minutes 
P_{lt}  2 hours 
The standard recommends that the observation period should cover the part of the operation cycle that includes the most “unfavorable sequence of voltage changes”.
Assessing P_{st} requires the cycle of operation to be repeated continuously unless otherwise specified in Annex A of IEC6100033. The minimum time it takes to restart the equipment, for equipment that automatically stops shall be included in the observation period if the cycle of operation is shorter than the observation period.
The assessment of P_{lt} does not require the cycle of operation to be repeated unless otherwise stated in Annex A, when the cycle of operation is less than 2hrs and the equipment is not used continuously.
Example:
Cycle of operation: 35 minutes
Four consecutive P_{st} values are measured during an initial period of 40 minutes.
Remaining eight P_{st} values in the 2Hr test period are deemed to be zero.
General test conditions
The standard provides guidance on general test conditions for devices not mentioned in Annex A, advising that the equipment should be set up to produce the most unfavorable conditions with respect to voltage fluctuations at the input terminals of the equipment when connected to the power source and reference network.
The equipment should only use settings and programmable modes that are mentioned by the manufacturer in the instruction manual or that are otherwise likely to be used.
The underlying message of the standard is one that the equipment must be working in a similar manner to that which it would be in normal day to day use when in the field. The standard concentrates on simulation of the equipment when connected to a real power grid, therefore it makes sense to ensure that the equipment being tested is being used in a realistic manner.
Guidance for Motors
When a motor is first started, the back emf created by a rotating rotor across the static motor windings is zero, therefore when the rotor mechanical frequency is zero the supply current will be maximum. It is sensible to conclude that a locked rotor test (in which the rotors mechanical frequency is zero) could be used to determine the maximum inrush current. A secondary effect of maximum inrush current is a large d_{max} measurement, in fact the maximum d_{max} will occur during a locked rotor test and this approach is acceptable for d_{max }assessment.
Separately Controlled Circuits
For equipment consisting of separately controlled circuits, each system should be considered as an entirely separate item of equipment. This is providing that each sub circuit is not designed to be switched at exactly the same moment.
If several sub circuits are designed to be switched simultaneously then each group of circuits should be considered a separate item of equipment.
Example:
A system contains 14 sub circuits
Circuits 1,3,5 and 7 all switch simultaneously (System A)
Circuits 2, 4, 6 and 8 ~ 14 all switch simultaneously (System B)
Therefore, two “Items of equipment” are separately tested for the 14 sub circuits.
If a control system regulates only part of a load, the fluctuations in the supply voltage produced by each variable part should be separately considered.
Annex A
Annex A provides mores specific product type related information regarding test conditions, a brief overview of the recommended test conditions are tabulated below;
IEC6100033 Annex A  
Product Type  Type Test Conditions 
Cookers  No requirement to test P_{lt} for domestic cookers P_{st} performed at steady state, unless specified Hotplates – Tested using standard saucepans with water quantity specified in table A.1 of IEC6100033:2013 Boiling – Perform 5 tests at boiling point and take the mean to calculate final result Frying – Fill pan to 1.5 times quantity in table A.1, set temperature to 180 deg C, confirm temperature with thermocouple Power Settings – Test all discrete power stages up to a maximum of 10. If non discrete stages are available separate range into 10 discrete steps. Baking Ovens – Test empty with door closed Place thermocouple in center of oven Set temperature to 220 deg C (conventional ovens), 200 deg C (hot air ovens) Grills – Test with doors closed, unless otherwise stated If settings are available – set to lowest, middle and highest settings and record worst result. Baking Oven/Grill Combinations – Test with door closed Place thermocouple in the center of the oven Set temperature to 250 deg C (or closest available temperature to this value) Microwave Ovens – Use a 1000g glass bowl of water as a load Test at low, medium and third power stage (less than or equal to 90% maximum power) Worst result recorded 
Lighting  Use lamp rated at power rating of equipment P_{lt} and P_{st} evaluation only required for equipment likely to produce flicker, such as disco equipment No limits apply to individual lamps, such as fluorescent tubes Incandescent Lamps (≤1000W), Discharge Lamps (≤600W), LED Lamps (≤200W) are deemed to pass d_{max} without the requirement for testing. Luminaries with higher ratings that do not comply to the limits specified in IEC6100033 shall be subject to conditional connection in accordance with IEC61000311 
Washing Machines  Complete laundry program, normal wash cycle, 60deg C cotton without pre wash program if available Rated load of double hemmed press washed cotton cloths (70x70cm, 140g/m^{2} ~ 175g/m^{2}) Water temperature 65degC (heater element), 15degC (other) Heating elements not controlled by programmer – preheat to 65degC Heating elements with no programmer – preheat to 90degC or lower if steady state is reached Ignore simultaneous switching of motor and heater for assessment of d_{c}, d_{max} and T_{max} Evaluate P_{st} and P_{lt} 
Tumble Dryers  Fill with textiles, 50% dry load double hemmed press washed cotton cloths (70x70cm, 140g/m^{2} ~ 175g/m^{2}) Soak with 25degC water, adding 60% of original mass Where possible, perform test at maximum and minimum heat settings Evaluate P_{st} and P_{lt} 
Refrigerators  Operate continuously with the door closed Adjust thermostat to the mid value Empty the cabinet, no heat required Do not evaluate P_{st} and P_{lt} 
Copying Machines, Laser Printers and Similar  Test for P_{st} at the maximum rate of copying Copy medium is white blank paper, 80g/m^{2} if not otherwise stated Evaluate P_{lt} in standby mode 
Vacuum Cleaners  Do not evaluate P_{st} and P_{lt} 
Food Mixers  Do not evaluate P_{st} and P_{lt} 
Portable Tools  Do not evaluate P_{lt} For portable tools without heating elements fitted do not evaluate P_{st} Switch on for 10 minutes 
Hairdryers  For hand held dryers P_{lt }shall not be evaluated Evaluate P_{lt} by switching on for 10 minutes If power ranges are available, test complete range up to a maximum of 20 stages (for discrete steps) 
Television, Audio, Computer, DVD and similar equipment  Refer to Annex A, if no special test conditions are appropriate, only compliance to d_{max} is required. 
The table is not exhaustive and reference to Annex A in IEC6100033 is recommended, further test conditions recommendations are made for other equipment such as water heaters, audiofrequency amplifiers, air conditioners, heat pumps, commercial refrigeration equipment and arc welding equipment.
Annex B
Annex B describes test conditions for measuring d_{max}, also known as voltage changes at the terminals of the equipment under test caused by manual switching.
When an item of equipment is manually switched on or off, current inrush to the EUT causes voltage changes over the supply network. A statistical method is used in order to achieve a repeatable measurement of d_{max}.
The procedure includes 24 separate measurements, described below;
 Start measurement
 Switch on EUT
 Operate EUT for as long as possible during a 1 minute period
 Switch off EUT before the end of 1 minute period
 Ensure all moving parts inside the EUT have come to a standstill before the end of the 1 minute period.
 Ensure devices affecting d_{max} have had time to cool to the ambient temperature before the next measurement interval has started.
 Start the next measurement
The highest and lowest recorded d_{max} values are deleted and the arithmetical average of the remaining 22 values is taken.
Annex C
Annex C describes determination of steady state voltage and voltage change characteristics.
This section of the standard is a modified version extracted from IEC61000415:2010, we should remember that the two standards would not exist without the other. IEC61000415 sets out requirements of the measurement system whereas IEC6100033 describes the pass/fail limits and practical implementation of a flicker test.
There are two distinct conditions that should be considered, one is where the voltage half period RMS remains in a steady state, the other is a period of “change”. This change can be a rise or fall of the half period RMS magnitude.
Definitions
In order for us to understand the terminology and descriptions within annex C, it is important for us to define the parameters related to steady state and changing voltages.
Half period RMS Voltage (U_{hp}) –
This is the half period RMS (root mean square) value of the test waveform, taken from 0~180º and 180~360º, you will notice that the “half wave” is windowed with respect to zero crossing.
Half Period RMS as specified in IEC6100033 (U_{hp}) 
Figure 5. 
Figure 5 illustrates the data points used (the PPA5511/PPA5531 sample rate is much faster, at 2Ms/s) to calculate the half period Voltage RMS between 0~180º, this process is then repeated for the second half of the cycle (180~360º). It is clear that U_{hp }becomes a function of time which leads us on to our second definition.
Half period RMS Voltage characteristics U_{hp(t)}
The behavior of successive half period Vrms values is a function of time, therefore U_{hp }is used.
Relative Half period RMS Voltage d_{hp}
Expressed as a ratio in comparison to to nominal voltage, this compares the most recently measured U_{hp }value to the nominal voltage (U_{n}) as follows.
d_{hp(t) }= U_{hp(t) }/ U_{n}
Steady State Voltage Change d_{c,i }
Value of the difference between two consecutive steady state voltage changes, normally expressed as a percentage of the nominal voltage U_{n}.
d_{c,i }= [d_{end,i1 }– d_{start,i}]/U_{n}
d_{c} Measurement Example:
Steady State Voltage Change Example 
Figure 6. 
Figure 6 illustrates the behavior of the half period RMS over time when a “steady state change” occurs as per the IEC6100033 standard.
d_{c,i }= [d_{end,i1 }– d_{start,i}]/U_{n}
d_{c,i }= [230227.7]/230 = 0.01 = 1%
This is an example of a steady state voltage calculation, you will notice that the next steady state occurs after 1 second at the 227.7Vrms half period value.
Maximum Voltage Change d_{max,i}
This is the maximum recorded voltage difference between a steady state condition and a following half period Vrms ( d_{hp(t)}) during the test period.
d_{max,i }= max [d_{end,i1 }– d_{hp(t)}]
Polarity is indicated, the direction of polarity is dependent upon the direction of the voltage change in comparison to the d_{end,i1 }value.
If:
The d_{max} value is a result of a reduction in voltage then the value of d_{max} is positive.
The d_{max} value is a result of an increase in voltage then the value of d_{max} is negative.
Maximum steady state Voltage change during observation period d_{c}
d_{c} is the highest absolute value of all d_{c,i} values recorded during a test.
d_{c }= max i [d_{c,i}]
Maximum absolute Voltage change during test period d_{max}
Highest absolute value of all d_{max,i }values during the test period.
d_{max }= max i [d_{max,i}]
Voltage deviation d_{(t)}
d_{(t) }is the deviation of the current half period Vrms(d_{hp(t)}) to the previous d_{end,i1 }inside a voltage change characteristic. Polarity is optional for this parameter and a voltage drop is considered positive.
d_{(t)} = d_{end,i1 }– d_{hp(t) }
Steady State Voltage Change and Voltage Change Characteristics
A steady state condition is defined as when the half period r.m.s. voltage U_{hp }remains within a tolerance band of ±0.2% for a minimum of 100 half cycles of the fundamental frequency (50Hz), this clearly equates to a steady state for 2 seconds.
At the beginning of a flicker test, the initial reference voltage is defined to be the average r.m.s. voltage acquired during the preceding second to the commencement of the test period. This is the starting reference value for d_{c }and d_{hp(t)} calculations and well as for the calculation of d_{max }and d_{(t) }measurements.
If a steady state condition cannot be established during the test, d_{c }shall be reported as zero.
As the test progresses, an average U_{hp,avg }is calculated from the last 100 (50Hz) U_{hp }values. The U_{hp,avg }value is used to determine whether or not the steady state condition continues, it is also used as the reference for d_{c}, d_{max} and T_{max} in the event voltage changes occur.
What this essentially means is that a 100 sample average, U_{hp,avg} of the half period r.m.s. voltage is continually taken, this average value is then compared to the last half period r.m.s. voltage U_{hp}. If the last half period r.m.s. voltage is within 0.2% of the U_{hp,avg }value then the steady state condition continues.
A new steady state condition d_{c,i} is determined after a voltage change has occurred by calculating an initial value – dstart,i = dhp(t=tstart) is used. A tolerance value of 0.2% is set and a steady state condition is detected if 100 half period r.m.s. values are within the 0.2% band.
The reason U_{hp,avg }is used is to prevent slowly changing line voltages triggering a d_{c} or d_{max} indication.
The last value of U_{hp }that lies within the 0.2% tolerance is denoted as d_{end,i}. The new half period r.m.s. value following this final value within the 0.2% limit is denoted as d_{hp}. This value is used as the starting value for determining the value of the next steady state condition, known as d_{c,i+1}.
Once a new U_{hp,avg }is present (after 100 half cycles), a new steady state condition is measurement is taken. If any value falls outside the tolerance band for the 100 half periods, then this new value is used as the starting point for the steady state condition, until a period of 100 consecutive half cycles fall within the tolerance band of 0.2%.
Verifying D Values
N4L’s flicker meter verification tests are performed as per “Determination of steady state voltage and voltage change characteristics, as defined in IEC61000415:2010”, specifically referring to Annex C.
Both reference voltage change characteristic patterns are generated which are described in table C.1 and C.2 of IEC6100033:2013.
N4L have developed an AC Power source capable of generating the required Vrms change characteristics to simulate the waveforms described in C.1 and C.2, other waveforms can be generated as per customer requirements with the generator of the N4A06 6KVA AC Power source.
Table C.1 – Test Specification for d_{c} – d_{max} – t_{d(t)} 
Figure 7. 
The waveform is generated using “SEQUENCE” mode in the N4A06 AC Power Source, utilizing highly accurate timing algorithms.
The waveform is then measured with the PPA5511 flicker meter, with “normal” d(t) measurement settings.
PPA5511 Verification : t_{d(t)} = 500ms_{} 
Figure 8. 
The waveform in table C.2 is then generated and verified, a t_{d(t)} value of 600ms is expected.Note that t_{d(t)} is displayed as Tmax on the PPA5511.
Table C.2 – Test Specification for d_{c} – d_{max} – t_{d(t)} 
Figure 9. 
PPA5511 Verification : t_{d(t)} = 600ms_{} 
Figure 10. 
It should be noted that in figures 8 and 10 the values for d_{(t)}, d_{c} and T_{max} are all well within the accuracy limits of the IEC61000 standards.
Conclusion
Flicker analysis is a complex subject, procedures must be in place in order to perform thorough verification of the analyzer. Newtons4th are an accredited ISO17025 Calibration Laboratory (UKAS) and our scope includes testing of Harmonics and Flicker to IEC6100033 (IEC6100047), ISO17025 calibration is available directly from Newtons4th.
References:
 International Electrotechnical Vocabulary. (1990). Electromagnetic Compatibility – Chapter 161, IEC 60050161:1990. International Electrotechnical Vocabulary
 International Electrotechnical Commission. (2013). Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 33 Limits – Limitation of voltage changes, voltage fluctuations and flicker in public lowvoltage supply systems, for equipment with rated current ≤16 A per phase and not subject to conditional connection. International Electrotechnical Commission.